The foundations of the Turkish legal system were laid in the early Republican period (1923-1930). This structure was maintained in general after the transition to a multi-party system and following the constitutions adopted in 1961 and 1982.


Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. For instance, the Turkish Civil Code has been modified by incorporating elements mainly of the Swiss Civil Code and Code of Obligations, and the German Commercial Code. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart.

Turkish Judicial System

Existing administrative bodies are Ministry of Justice, High Council of Judges and Prosecutors, Justice Academy of Turkey, Institution of Forensic  Science and the courts are Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, Military Court of Cassation, High Military Administrative Court, Court of Jurisdictional Disputes, District Courts of Appeals, District Administrative Courts, First Instance Courts of Ordinary Jurisdiction, First Instance Courts of Administrative Jurisdiction, First Instance Courts of Military Jurisdiction.

The Ministry of Justice

Turkish Ministry of Justice having an important role within Turkish judicial system is responsible for determining the main policies about the system as well as controlling the budgets of important bodies within this system. The Ministry of Justice is organized under the directorates of Inspection Board, Directorate General for Criminal Affairs, Directorate General for Legal Affairs, Directorate General for Prisons and Detention Houses, General for Criminal Records and Statistics, Directorate General for Laws, Directorate General for International Law and Foreign Relations, Directorate General for European Union, Directorate General for Personnel, Directorate for Strategy Development, Department of Training, Department of Administrative and Financial Affairs, Department of Information Technologies, Internal Auditing Unit, Department of Workshops Institution, Department of Publications, Department of Technical Affairs, Department of Technical Issues and Forensic Medicine Institute.


Industrial property

Turkey is adapting its legal framework of industrial property to fit with the directives of the EU. The main advances in this domain are the creation of the Turkish Patent and Trademark Office (TPTO), the introduction of a regime of penal sanctions and the updating of the Law on Trademarks through a series of decrees. 

Legal Turkish language 

Turkish language employed in legal texts are naturally affected by the existing codes, some of them were put into application in 1923. Since then, a lot of efforts have been made to eliminate the legal terminologies of Arabic and Farsi origin. In 1923, Turkish language was like Ottoman Language. As a result, today Turkish legal texts are complicated, requiring true expertise to understand and translate.


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